In the food industry, additives are used to increase the properties of the product such as color, taste, and appearance, and to extend its shelf life. Although the use of additives has been a matter of debate in recent years, some additives can be used with certain limits.
One of the most commonly used additives in foods is thickeners. The most commonly used thickeners are:
- Pectin (E404): Pectin, which is formed by the straight chain arrangement of galacturonic acid molecules, has the ability to form a gel when combined with sugar. It is obtained from apples and citrus fruits. It is used in the production of jam, jelly and marmalade.
- Guar Gam (E412): Also known as Guaran, it is obtained from the fattening tissue of siamese broad beans. Creates a creamy texture for foods, prevents icing, improves the texture and extends the shelf life of bakery products. It is used in sahlep, boza and flavored beverages.
- Xanthan Gum (E415): Xanthan gum, used as stabilizer and thickener in foods, is obtained by fermentation of glucose or sucrose with Xanthomonas campestris bacteria.
- Gum Arabik (E414): It is a natural polysaccharide produced from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. It is used in the production of chewing gum, beverage production, confectionery.
- Malto Dextrin (E1400): It is a carbohydrate that can be obtained from corn, potatoes, wheat, barley and rye. It is used in sugar coatings, soft centered candies, peanut and chickpea coating processes.
- Carregenan (E407): It is a natural additive obtained from red seaweed. It is used in many products due to its gel forming properties.